Antiqua Print Gallery Red Square
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Red Square

Red Square (Russian: Krásnaya plóshchad’) is the most famous city square in Moscow, and arguably one of the most famous in the world. The square separates the Kremlin, the former royal citadel and currently the official residence of the President of Russia, from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitay-gorod. As major streets of Moscow radiate from here in all directions, being promoted to major highways outside the city, the Red Square is often considered the central square of Moscow and of all Russia. In 1702 at a moat near the Nikolsky gate was built wooden theatre - the first public theatre in Russia (has burned down in 1737). In the 1730's in front of old buildings Mint was buildt a new Mint, subsequently known as the Gubernskoye pravlenie (Provincial Board). Catherine the Great decided to improvement the square. In 1786 the stone market lines have been reconstructing and have received second floors. This line was built and on the opposite side of the square - at moat between the Spasskaya and Nikolskaya towers. Then architect Matvey Kazakov built (in the old forms) the new Lobnoye mesto of hewn stone, slightly west of the place where it was before. In 1804, at the request of merchants, which interfered with dirt, the square was paved with stones. In 1806 Nikolskaya Tower was is reconstructed in the Gothic style, and has received tent roof. The new phase of improvement of the square began after the Napoleonic invasion and fire in 1812. Moat was filled in 1813, in its place planted rows of trees. Market Line along the moat, dilapidated of the fire and explosion, had been demolished, and on the eastern side Joseph Bové constructed new building of lines in Empire style. In 1818 it was put Monument to Minin and Pozharsky, symbolising lifted up during the war patriotic consciousness of nation. In 1874, historic building of Zemsky prikaz was demolished and in its place was built in the Imperial Historical Museum in psevdo-russian style. After the had been demolished Bové's lines, replaced in 1888-1893 of new large buildings in the pseudo-russian style: Upper lines (GUM department store) and Middle lines. The Upper lines was intended for retail sale and was in fact the first in Moscow department store; Middle lines intended for the wholesale trade. At the same time (in 1892) the square was illuminated by electric lanterns. In 1909 on the square appeared tram. (Wikipedia)