NEW ZEALAND River Waikato nr Nangatawhiri-Koheroa antique print 1863
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Home > Prints and Maps by Country > Australasia > New Zealand

NEW ZEALAND. River Waikato nr Nangatawhiri-Koheroa, antique print, 1863

Price: £8.99

CAPTION BELOW PICTURE: 'Views in New Zealand: The River Waikato, from the hills near Nangatawhiri-Koheroa, the scene of the fight of July 17 '

New Zealand Land Wars
The New Zealand or Land Wars were a series of wars fought between Mori on one side and a mixture of settler troops, imperial troops and other Mori on the other. What the wars were 'about' has been debated by historians, with Keith Sinclair arguing that they were about land, while James Belich has argued that although land was a major factor, the wars were essentially a contest over sovereignty. This debate is reflected in the naming of the wars: there is no real consensus over whether they should be called the 'New Zealand Wars' or the 'Land Wars', although Belich's television series about the conflict has popularised the former term. The name 'Mori Wars' has fallen into disuse. A Mori name for the conflict is 'Te Riri Pkeh' (white man's anger). While the fighting began in 1843 and the last shots were arguably fired in the early twentieth century, the bulk of fighting took place in the 1860s.
The first skirmish of the New Zealand Wars was the 1843 Wairau Affray at the north end of the South Island. It was an isolated incident caused by the Nelson settlers trying to seize land they did not own, an extra-legal vigilante action that resulted in twenty-two of them being killed. The Flagstaff or Northern War took place in the far north of New Zealand, around the Bay of Islands, in March 1845 and January 1846. This was about manatribal prestigeand customs duties. It was really a war between rival Mori chiefs with the British fighting on one side for the prestige of the British Empire. This was followed almost immediately by the Hutt Valley Campaign, March to August 1846, and the Wanganui Campaign, April to July 1847, in the south-west of the North Island. Both these conflicts were about the encroachment of the European settlers onto Mori land. In the first three wars Mori fought the British to a standstill each time. From the engagements emerged an understanding: English law prevailed in the townships and settlements, and Mori law and customs elsewhere. There followed a period of relative peace and economic cooperation from 1848 to 1860.
During this time European settlement accelerated and in about 1859 the number of Pkeh came to equal the number of Mori, at around 60,000 each. By now Pkeh had largely forgotten the painful lessons of the earlier conflicts. They tried to use military might to push through a very dubious land sale that the courts later repudiated. The result was the First Taranaki War. Once again the local British forces were more than evenly matched by Mori, and after twelve months both sides were happy to settle for a draw.
However this was clearly just a preliminary. The British settlers were not prepared to countenance Mori controlling and ruling most of the land in the North Island. War broke out again in 1863 with the Invasion of the Waikato. The Waikato War, including the Tauranga Campaign, was the biggest of all the New Zealand Wars. The outcome of this war was the major confiscation of land owned by Mori, which quickly provoked the Second Taranaki War. By the mid 1860s the conflict had forced the closing of all the native schools.
The period from the second half of 1864 until early 1868 was relatively quiet. Possibly the most notorious incident during this time was the murder of the missionary Carl Volkner. There were also two serious intra-tribal conflicts, civil wars in Mori tribes, between adherents and non-adherents of the Pai Marire or Hau Hau secta vehemently anti-Pkeh religious group which was intent upon balancing the developing unbalanced cooperation between the Mori and Pkeh. These are sometimes known as the East Cape War, but that label oversimplifies a complicated series of conflicts. The last major conflicts were Te Kooti's War and Titokowaru's War. These were fought at the same time but were not related to each other and should be considered as separate conflicts. This ended the major, violent conflicts between the new colonial government and the original occupants of the land.
There were subsequently other conflicts and incidents that were a part of the overall conflict, but are not usually seen in the context of the New Zealand Wars. The invasion of Parihaka in 1881 was certainly one of these. There was an incident in the 1890s that became known as the Dog Tax War. Another was the arrest of Rua Kenana in 1916. It is even possible that events at Bastion Point in the 1970s should be considered as part of the same scenario.

(Source Wikipedia)

Notes on the historical context / background to the print can be viewed at: New Zealand Land Wars

DATE PRINTED: 1863    

IMAGE SIZE: Approx 15.0 x 23.5cm, 6 x 9.25 inches (Medium)

TYPE: Antique wood engraved print

CONDITION: Good; suitable for framing. However, please note: The image shown may have been scanned from a different example of this print than that which is offered for sale: The print you will receive is in Good condition but there may be minor variations in the condition compared to that shown in the image. Please check the scan for any blemishes prior to making your purchase. Virtually all antiquarian maps and prints are subject to some normal aging due to use and time which is not obtrusive unless otherwise stated. We offer a no questions asked return policy.

AUTHENTICITY: This is an authentic historic print, published at the date stated above. It is not a modern copy.

VERSO: There are images and/or text printed on the reverse side of the picture. In some cases this may be visible on the picture itself (please check the scan prior to your purchase) or around the margin of the picture.


PROVENANCE: Illustrated London News

NEW ZEALAND. River Waikato nr Nangatawhiri-Koheroa, antique print, 1863
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